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Angina Pectoris

Angina Pectoris: Understanding Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Heart conditions such as angina cause chest pain or discomfort as a result of reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. The condition is often a symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive understanding of angina, including its symptoms, causes, treatment options, and prevention methods. In addition, we will discuss Felix Hospital's role in managing angina.
 

What is Angina?

As a result of inadequate oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart muscle, angina causes chest pain or discomfort. Symptoms include squeezing, pressure, heaviness, or tightness in the chest. Angina can be classified as stable or unstable.


Types Of Angina:

A. Stable Angina:
The most common type of angina is stable angina, characterized by chest pain or discomfort triggered by physical exertion or emotional stress. In most cases, the symptoms subside after resting or taking medication. Blood flow to the heart is restricted due to plaque buildup narrowing the coronary arteries.

B. Unstable Angina:
Angina that is unstable is more severe and unpredictable. An impending heart attack can be indicated by chest pain or discomfort even when you are at rest or if you do little physical activity. Medical attention is required immediately.
 

Symptoms of Angina:

Chest discomfort or pain are common symptoms of angina, but the exact symptoms can vary from individual to individual. In most cases, chest pressure, squeezing, heaviness, or tightness are the primary symptoms. Arms (usually the left arm), neck, jaw, shoulder, and back pain are some of the areas where pain may radiate. Other symptoms may include: 

  1. Shortness of Breath: It is common for people with angina to experience shortness of breath, especially when they are exerting themselves physically or under stress. Chest pain can occur alongside or independently of it.
  2. Nausea: People with angina may feel nauseated or experience indigestion-like symptoms, which are often mistaken for stomach problems.
  3. Fatigue: Even with minimal physical activity, angina can cause unexplained fatigue or exhaustion.
  4. Sweating: Angina episodes are characterized by profuse sweating, often described as cold and clammy.
  5. Dizziness: Angina attacks may cause individuals to feel dizzy or lightheaded due to reduced blood flow to the brain.
  6. Anxiety: Angina episodes may induce anxiety or a sense of impending doom, which may worsen symptoms.
     

Causes of Angina:

A narrowed or blocked coronary artery causes angina, which is primarily caused by inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common underlying cause. There are several factors that contribute to the development of angina: 

  1. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): As a result of the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques, the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart, narrow or block. Plaques restrict blood flow, reducing the amount of oxygen reaching the heart.
  2. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis occurs when plaque accumulates in the arteries, narrowing them and reducing their flexibility. The formation of plaque is a complex process involving factors such as high cholesterol levels, inflammation, and the deposit of fatty substances.
  3. Risk Factors: The following factors increase the likelihood of developing angina and CAD
  • High blood pressure (hypertension): Elevated blood pressure puts additional strain on the heart and blood vessels, increasing the risk of angina.
  • High cholesterol levels: Elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, known as "bad" cholesterol, can contribute to plaque formation.
  • Smoking: The chemicals in tobacco smoke damage the blood vessels and accelerate plaque buildup.
  • Diabetes: Uncontrolled diabetes can damage blood vessels, making them more prone to plaque formation.
  • Obesity: Excess weight increases the risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, all of which contribute to angina.
  • Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of regular physical activity weakens the heart and cardiovascular system, making angina more likely.
  • Family history: Having a close relative with angina or CAD increases the risk.

While angina is commonly associated with CAD, other conditions can also cause similar symptoms, such as coronary artery spasms, heart valve disorders, or heart muscle inflammation.

The Felix Hospital is committed to providing comprehensive cardiac care and managing angina effectively.
 

Treatment of Angina:

The angina treatment  aims to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and reduce the heart attack risk. It typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, medical procedures. Treatment options may include:

A. Lifestyle Modifications:

  • Adopting a heart-healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Regular exercise and physical activity as recommended by a healthcare professional.
  • Smoking cessation.
  • Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques or counseling.

B. Medications:

  • Nitroglycerin: Used to relieve acute angina episodes by dilating the blood vessels and improving blood flow to the heart.
  • Beta-blockers: Help reduce heart rate and blood pressure, relieving angina symptoms.
  • Calcium channel blockers: Relax and widen the blood vessels, improving blood flow to the heart.
  • Aspirin: Often prescribed to reduce the risk of blood clot formation.
     

Medical Procedures:

  • Angioplasty and stenting: In this procedure, a thin tube with a balloon is inserted into the narrowed coronary artery and inflated to open the blockage. A stent may be placed to keep the artery open.
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): In severe cases, bypass surgery may be recommended to reroute blood flow around the blocked arteries, restoring normal blood supply to the heart.
     

Prevention of Angina:

Prevention plays a crucial role in managing angina and reducing the risk of complications. Some preventive measures include:

  • Regular check-ups: Regularly monitor your health and blood pressure.
  • Manage cholesterol: Control LDL cholesterol levels through diet and medication.
  • Healthy diet: Follow a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.
  • Exercise regularly: Engage in physical activity to improve cardiovascular fitness.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking damages blood vessels and increases angina risk.
  • Manage stress: Practice stress-reducing techniques like meditation or yoga.
  • Take prescribed medications: Adhere to medication regimens for blood pressure and cholesterol.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Manage weight through diet and exercise.
  • Educate yourself: Learn about heart-healthy lifestyles and seek support when needed.
     

 What is the approximate cost of Angina treatment?

The cost of angioplasty treatment for angina can range from 1 lakh to 3 lakh INR, depending on various factors. Factors that influence the cost include

  • The type of room chosen by the patient
  • The specific hospital where the procedure is performed
  • The type of stent used during angioplasty
  • The complexity of the procedure and any additional medical interventions required may also affect the overall cost

For accurate and detailed cost estimates, it is recommended to consult with the experienced healthcare professionals at Felix Hospital. They can provide personalized information, guide patients through the process, and ensure transparency and understanding regarding the costs associated with angioplasty treatment.
 

Why Choose Felix Hospital?

Felix Hospital, a renowned healthcare institution, places significant emphasis on the value of preventive care in promoting heart health and preventing angina. With a dedicated commitment to patient well-being, Felix Hospital offers a range of services and resources to support individuals in implementing preventive measures.

  • Comprehensive examinations and diagnostic tests at Felix Hospital ensure a thorough evaluation of the patient's cardiovascular health status.
  • Expert consultations at the hospital provide a deeper understanding of risk factors, lifestyle modifications, and guidance on managing conditions like high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
  • Felix Hospital fosters awareness and empowers patients to make informed decisions about their cardiovascular well-being.
  • The hospital creates a compassionate and supportive environment for individuals seeking preventive care.
  • Felix Hospital is committed to equipping individuals with knowledge and resources through medical check-ups, expert consultations, educational programs, and unwavering support.

By offering these services, the hospital aims to mitigate the risk of angina and maintain optimal heart health for patients.
 

Common FAQs on Angina

  • What are the typical symptoms of angina?

The most common symptom of angina is a squeezing or pressure-like chest pain that may radiate to the arms, jaw, neck, back, or shoulders. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, and sweating.

  • Are there different types of angina?

Yes, there are different types of angina. The most common types include stable angina (pain occurs during physical exertion or stress), unstable angina (pain occurs even at rest or with minimal exertion), and variant (Prinzmetal's) angina (caused by a coronary artery spasm).

  • How is angina diagnosed?

Angina is diagnosed through a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, and various tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), stress tests, echocardiogram, coronary angiography, and blood tests.

  • What are the treatment options for angina?

The treatment for angina aims to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and reduce the  heart attack risk and other cardiovascular events. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes (such as quitting smoking, adopting a heart-healthy diet, and exercising regularly), medications (such as nitroglycerin, beta-blockers, or calcium channel blockers), and in some cases, procedures like angioplasty or bypass surgery.

  • When is angioplasty required?

Angioplasty is required when there is a significant blockage or narrowing in the coronary arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart. It is commonly performed to alleviate symptoms of angina, improve blood flow, and prevent or treat a heart attack.

  • When should I seek medical attention for angina symptoms?

It is important to seek immediate medical attention if you experience severe chest pain, pain that lasts longer than a few minutes, pain that spreads to your jaw, arm, or back, or if you have difficulty breathing or fainting. These may be signs of a heart attack, and prompt medical care is crucial.