Glaucoma

What is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a disease that harms the optic nerve of your eye. When fluid in the front of your eye builds up, this typically occurs. The pressure in your eye increases as a result of this additional fluid, damaging the optic nerve. Also known as Black Cataract, Glaucoma is considered a major cause of blindness, as most cases of Glaucoma do not show any symptoms or cause pain. If the eyesight is lost due to Glaucoma, then it can’t be brought back again. So you must prefer having Glaucoma Treatment before it gets too late.

Types of Glaucoma:

  • Primary or Open-angle Glaucoma- This is the most common type of Glaucoma in which the tubes that drain the fluids out of the eyes get blocked, due to which the fluids do not come out in the proper amount from the eyes. This causes an increase in the pressure in the eyes.

  • Angle-closure Glaucoma-It is also called narrow-angle Glaucoma. In this condition, the tubes draining the fluid from the eyes become completely blocked and the pressure in the eye increases rapidly. Clogged drains can cause fluid to accumulate in excess, and severe pain can occur.
  • Low tension Glaucoma- This kind of Glaucoma damages the optic nerve without raising the pressure on it. Investigations are still ongoing to determine why this occurs. However, it is thought that it might occur as a result of the optic nerve receiving less blood.
  • Congenital Glaucoma- Congenital Glaucoma, as the name implies, can result from an inherited condition or faulty development brought on by pregnancy. The obstruction of the fluid draining tubes or some other medical issue causes the pressure on those optic nerves to grow in this case as well. 
  • Secondary Glaucoma- Secondary glaucoma can be caused by a medical condition that increases pressure in the eye. This can cause damage to the optic nerve which causes glaucoma.

 

Symptoms of Glaucoma:

  • Redness of eyes
  • Seeing colored rings around lights
  • Weak vision or blurred vision
  • Severe pain in eyes and head
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

Causes of Glaucoma:

  • Ageing (Occurs in people above 40 years, after 60 its risk increases significantly)
  • Family history of Glaucoma
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • High blood pressure problem
  • Sickle cell Anemia
  • Migraine
  • Myopia

Diagnosis of Glaucoma:

  • Ophthalmoscopy- In this test, the eye doctor inserts drops into the eye to dilate the pupil, then examines the inside of the eye using a special light and magnifying glass.

 

  • Perimetry- The doctor does a visual field test to check the person's peripheral vision. The person looks straight ahead while the doctor projects a light spot in various places around the edge of their vision. 
  • Tonometry- In this test, the eye is numbed with eye drops before the doctor uses a device that either touches the cornea or blows air into it to measure the pressure inside the eye.
  • Gonioscopy- The doctor uses eye drops to numb the eye, then puts a type of contact lens on the eye. The lens contains a mirror that can show whether the angle between the iris and cornea is normal, too wide (open), or too narrow (closed).
  • Pachymetry-The doctor places a probe in front of the eye to measure the thickness of the cornea. When he assesses all the outcomes, the doctor takes this into account because ocular pressure readings may be impacted by corneal thickness. 

Treatment of Glaucoma:

  • Medicines- Eye drops or oral medications are given as the initial treatment for Glaucoma. Some medicines help in reducing the fluid in the eye and some help in reducing the pressure.
  • Laser trabeculoplasty- This treatment is used to remove fluid from the eye. Laser is used after eye drops are put in to numb the eye. In many cases, after this treatment, the eye doctor also advises taking medicines.
  • Glaucoma Filtering Surgery- This is an older surgery for the treatment of glaucoma. To drain the fluid from the eye, a new aperture is created in this procedure. When both laser surgery and prescription medications fail to lower eye pressure, this operation is performed.

Prevention of Glaucoma:

  • Exercise regularly so that intra-ocular pressure can be controlled.
  • Have regular eye check-ups so that proper treatment can be done through diagnosis at the right time.
  • Take special care to protect the eyes, as serious eye injury can lead to secondary or traumatic glaucoma.
  • If you have a family history of glaucoma or any other eye problem, discuss it in detail with your doctor.
  • If the doctor has prescribed any eye drops to you, then put them on regularly.

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