Pulmonology is known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine.
Pulmonology often involves managing patients who need life support and mechanical ventilation.
Our Pulmonologists are specially trained in diseases and conditions of the chest, particularly pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, emphysema, and complicated chest infections.
The pulmonologist begins the diagnostic process with a general review focusing on:
- Hereditary diseases affecting the lungs (cystic fibrosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency)
- Exposure to toxins (tobacco smoke, asbestos, exhaust fumes, coal mining fumes)
- Exposure to infectious agents (certain types of birds, malt processing)
- An autoimmune diathesis that might predispose to certain conditions (pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension)
Physical diagnostics are as important as in the other fields of medicine.
- Inspection of the hands for signs of cyanosis or clubbing, chest wall, and respiratory rate.
- Palpation of the cervical lymph nodes, trachea and chest wall movement.
- Percussion of the lung fields for dullness or hyper-resonance.
- Auscultation (with a stethoscope) of the lung fields for diminished or unusual breath sounds.
- Rales or rhonchi heard over lung fields with a stethoscope
- As many heart diseases can give pulmonary signs, a thorough cardiac investigation is usually included.
- Laboratory investigation of blood (blood tests). Sometimes arterial blood gas measurements are also required.
- Spirometry the determination of maximum airflow at a given lung volume as measured by breathing into a dedicated machine; this is the key test to diagnose airflow obstruction.
- Pulmonary Function Tests spirometry, as above, plus response to bronchodilators, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity, the latter a measure of lung oxygen absorptive area
- Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy and epithelial brushing
- Chest X-rays
- CT scanning
- Scintigraphy and other methods of nuclear medicine
- Positron emission tomography (especially in lung cancer)
- Polysomnography (sleep studies) commonly used for the diagnosis of Sleep apnea